ADJECTIVE CLAUSE ( anak kalimat )


ADJECTIVE CLAUSE

AdjectiveClause dinamakan juga RELATIVE CLAUSE yaitu Clause (anak kalimat) yangdigunakan/berfungsi sebagai adjective yang menerangkan keadaan noun ataupronoun. Untuk lebih jelasnya penjelasan mengenai Adjective Clause, perhatikanpenjelasan di bawah ini:
Contoh:
  • I have read the book (that) you just mentioned.

    Main Clause: I have read the book.
    Subordinate Clause: (that) you just mentioned.
Anak kalimat menerangkan kata benda the book, disebut denganAdjective Clause

  • The lesson (that) she is learning is very difficult.

    Main Clause: The lesson is very difficult.
    Subordinate Clause: (that) she is learning.

Berdasarkan pada the Antecedent(kata sebelumnya) yang ditunjuk oleh introductory words (kata-katapendahulunya), Adjective Clause dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi 2 macam, yaitu:

1. Relative Pronoun
  • Kata Ganti Orang
    Kata Penghubung yang digunakan adalah : Who, Whom, Whose, That
    Fungsi :
    a. Subjek:
    - He who / that has a big house paid the money to Handi.
    b. Objek Kata Kerja:
    - He paid the carpenter whom / that he had hired.
    c. Objek Kata Depan:
    - He paid the man from whom he had borrowed the money.
    d. Kata Ganti Kepunyaan:
    - This is the girl whose picture you saw.
- Myfather called the police. His wallet was stolen
   My father whose wallet was stolen called thepolice.
  • Kata Ganti Benda, Binatang
    Kata Penghubung yang digunakan adalah: Which, that
    Fungsi:
    a. Subjek:
    - The chair which/that he broke is being repaired.
    b. Objek Kata Kerja:
    - Here is a book which/that describes animals.
    c. Objek Kata Depan:
    - She was wearing the coat for which she had paid Rp.50.000
2. Relative Adverbs
  • Waktu
    Kata Penghubung yang digunakan: when
    - This is the year when the Olympic Games are held.
  • Tempat
    Kata Penghubung yang digunakan: where
    - Here is the house where I live.
  • Alasan
    Kata Penghubung yang digunakan: why
    - Give me one good reason why you did that.

Beberapa Hal Pentingyang Berkaitan dengan Adjective Clause
  • Perubahan dari Adjective Clause menjadi Adjective Phrase.
    • Adjective Clause dapat dirubah menjadi Adjective Phrase yang menjelaskan noun tanpa ada perubahan arti kalimat.
    • Hanya Adjective Clause yang mempunyai subjek pronoun: who, which atau that yang dapat dirubah menjadi Adjective Phrase.
    • Adjective Clause dengan subjek: whom tidak dapat dirubah menjadi Adjective Phrase.

      Perhatikan Contoh berikut:

      a. Adjective Clause

      * The girl who is sitting next to me is Lisa.
      ==> The boy is playing the piano is Bent.

      b. Adjective Phrase

      * The girl sitting next to me is Lisa.
      ==> The boy playing the piano is Bent.
  • Cara mengubah Adjective Clause menjadi Adjective Phrase.

    (1) Subjek pronoun dan verb be dihilangkan.

    * Adjective Clause: The man who is talking to Taylor is from Japan.
    * Adjective Phrase: The man talking to Taylor is from Japan.

    * Adjective Clause: The ideas which are presented in that book are interesting.
    * Adjective Phrase: The ideas presented in that book are interesting.

    * Adjective Clause: Ali is the man who is responsible for preparing the budget.
    * Adjective Phrase: Ali is the man responsible for preparing the budget.

    * Adjective Clause: The books that are on the shelf are mine.
    Adjective Phrase: The books on the shelf are mine.

    (2) Jika tidak ada verb be dalam Adjective Clause, seringkali subjek pronoun dapat dihilangkan dan mengubah kata kerja dalam Clause itu menjadi bentuk -ing.

    * Adjective Clause: English has an alphabet that consists of 26 letters.
    * Adjective Phrase: English has an alphabet  consisting of 26 letters.

    * Adjective Clause: Anyone who wants to come with us is welcome.
    * Adjective Phrase: Anyone wanting to come with us is welcome.
  • Seringkali Adjective Clause digunakan dalam pola: noun + of which. Pola ini terutama digunakan untuk tulisan bahasa Inggris resmi (formal written English). Dalam pola ini biasanya Adjective Clause menerangkan "sesuatu".

    * We have an antique table. The top of it has jade inlay.
    • We have an antique table, the top of which has jade inlay.
    • We toured a 300-year-old house. The exterior of the house consisted of logs cemented with clay.
    • We toured a 300-year-old house, the exterior of which consisted of logs cemented with lay.
  • Adjective Clause sering digunakan untuk mengungkapkan kuantitas dengan of. Ungkapan kuantitas mendahului pronoun, dan hanya whom, which, dan whose yang digunakan dalam pola ini.

    Ungkapan kuantitas dengan "of" antara lain: some of, none of, both of, one of, many of, two of, all of, each of, most of, dll.

    * There are 20 students in my class. Most of them are from the Outside Java.
    --> There are 20 students in my class, most of whom are from the Outside Java.

    * He gave several reasons. Only a few of them were valid.
    --> He gave several reasons, only a few of which were valid.
  • Tanda Baca pada Adjective Clauses

    Pedoman umum dalam Tanda Baca pada Adjective Clauses yaitu:
    • Jangan menggunakan tanda koma bila Adjective Clause diperlukan untuk mengidentifikasi noun yang dijelaskan olehnya.
    • Gunakanlah tanda koma bila Adjective Clause hanya berfungsi untuk memberi informasi tambahan dan tidak dimaksudkan untuk mengidentifikasi noun yang dijelaskan olehnya.
      • Henry whose wife works at a bank came to my house yesterday.
      • Alex, whose wife works at a bank, came to my house yesterday.

Keterangan:

Contoh pertama menggambarkan bahwa Henry memiliki lebih dari 1 istri. Padakalimat tersebut pembicara ingin mengindentifikasikan istrinya yang bekerja diBank, bukan yang lainnya.

Sedangkan pada kalimat kedua, kita sudah jelas, kalau Alex memiliki hanya 1orang istri. Frase yang berada di antara koma hanya memberikan keterangantambahan saja. Tanpa frase tersebut pun orang lain sudah mengetahuinya kalauistrinya Alex memang bekerja di sebuah Bank karena memang istrinya cuma 1 itu.

Perhatikan contoh berikut ini untuk lebih jelasnya dalam penggunaan tanda komadalam Adjective Clause.
    • Soekarno, who is the first President of Republic of Indonesia, could deliver speech well.
Perbedaan antara Adjective Clause dan Noun Clause

Karena adanya kesamaan dalam beberapa kata pendahulunya, maka kadang-kadangantara Noun Clause dan Adjective Clause sering membingungkan.

Ada 2 macamperbedaan yang penting antara dua jenis Clause tersebut: perhatikan contohberikut ini:
  • Adjective Clause biasanya didahului oleh noun atau pronoun yang diterangkan.

    Adjective Clause
    • I know the house where he lives.
(where he lives mempunyaiantecedent the house, yang merupakan objek dari kata know)

Noun Clause
    • I know where he lives.
(where he lives adalah objek darikata know)
Preposisi yang mendahului introductory word adalah milikAdjective Clause dan bukan milik Noun Clause.

Adjective Clause
  • The woman to whom he has been giving money is a poor relative of his.
(Adjective Clause dimulai dengan to yang merupakan bentuk aprepositional phrase dengan whom dalam Adjective Clause itu. Dan To dapatdiletakkan di bagian belakang Adjective Clause. The woman, whom he has beengiving money to, is a poor relative of his).

Noun Clause
  • He gives money to whoever needs it.
(The Noun Clause dimulai dengan whoever, seluruh Noun Clauseitu adalah objek dari to, yang tidak dapat dipindah letaknya. Dan juga -ever-merupakan bentuk yang hanya bergandeng (mengikuti) dengan Noun Clause.


Latihan 1:

1)       My fathercalled the police. His wallet was stolen
        
2)       The taxidriver was friendly.  He took me to theairport.

3)       The Gomez familyis very nice.   We visited themyesterday.
        
4)       Las Vegas is the gamblingcapital of the world.  It is located in Nevada.
        
5)       The man isstanding over there.   I mentioned him toyou.
        
6)       Monet's WaterLilies painting is beautiful. She admires it.
        
7)       I am using asentence.  It contains an adjectiveclause.
        
8)       I liked thecomposition. You wrote it.
        
9)       I live in adormitory. Its residents come from many countries.
        
10)     The man isstanding over there.  I was telling youabout him.


Latihan2:
Salin Klausa Adjektiva (adjectiveclause) dari tiap kalimat.
Beri garisbawah sebuah untuk Subyek dan beri garis bawahdua buah untuk kata kerjanya.
Lalu tulislah Subyek atau obyek yangdiberi penjelasan dengan klausa adjectiva beserta klausa penjelasnya.

CONTOH:
She is the teacher who wrote ourtextbook.
Answer:  teacher-who wrote our textbook

1. It was the coldest winter thatNew Yorkers had ever experienced.
2. The maple tree that Grandfatherplanted is over twenty feet tall.
3. Staph germs in the body head fortissue that is damaged.
4. Donna is the cheerleader who alsoplays baseball.
5. One American writer who lived in Paris was James Baldwin.
6. The man who is wearing a neckbrace was in a car accident.
7. The mayor is the person to whomthe petition should be sent.
8. Fireflies, which are reallybeetles, produce cold lights.
9. The milk that is in this cartonsmells sour.
10. This is the time of day that Ilike best.





Latihan3: 
Ikuti pentunjuk Latihan 2!

1. One of the cities that producedearly jazz is New Orleans.
2. The carpenter who made thiscabinet is eighty years old.
3. In almost every family there issomeone who cannot throw anything away.
4. Panama,which joins Central America and South America,is a small but important country.
5. The silo in which the soybeanswere stored was struck by lightning.
6. The artist and her husbanddesigned their own home, which was made of steel and glass.
7. The manager gave the reporter alist of the players whose contracts had been renewed.
8. The man whose dog bit me drove meto the hospital.
9. Sunday night is the time whentelevision attracts the most viewers.
10. The window which was broken wasrepaired by a glazier.

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